Aijun Deng

Aijun Deng

  • Research Associate/Member of the graduate faculty
619 Walker Building
University Park, PA 16802
Phone: (814) 863-8253


  1. Ph.D., in meteorology, The Pennsylvania State University, 1999
  2. M.Engr., in computer science & engineering, The Pennsylvania State University, 1999


Dr. Aijun Deng has more than 20 years of experience in numerical weather prediction (NWP) and mesoscale modeling including using MM5 and WRF. His research interests cover many aspects of NWP: PBL processes, convection, data assimilation, realtime NWP applications, air quality modeling, etc. He is a contributing developer and an expert in MM5 and WRF modeling system. He has participated/led numerous scientific projects with many funding agencies including DOE, EPA, DOD, NOAA, etc. He developed a shallow/deep convection parameterization scheme for mesoscale models. This scheme is currently being implemented into WRF (Deng et al. 2013 and 2014), and potentially other atmospheric models.

In addition to contributing to model physics development, Dr. Deng is specialized in realtime NWP applications using MM5/WRF, and has developed many WRF realtime NWP systems for various sponsors/applications, including 1) the Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA) relocatable on-demand forecast system (ROFS), currently used at DTRA reachback to support hazard prediction and consequence management (Deng et al. 2007b, 2007c and 2011); 2) a Next Generation Airport Forecast System (NGAFS) based on WRF and initialized hourly using either the Rapid Refresh (RAP) with partial cycling of land surface fields, recently developed under NOAA sponsorship to improve high-resolution forecasts for airports, and can also be used for wind or solar energy forecasts (Deng et al. 2012a); 3) a WRF realtime forecast system that predicts the 4-D wind fields that were used to support the flight operation of the Penn State team to win first prize at the 2011 Green Flight Challenge competition (Langelaan et al. 2013); 4) a time-lagged WRF-Chem realtime forecast/monitoring system used to support the CO2 monitoring study during the World Economic Forum (WEF) Annual Meeting 2012 over Davos, Switzerland (Deng et al. 2012b, Lauvaux et al. 2013a); 5) a WRF-Chem realtime system used to forecast/monitor the methane release over Texas (Lauvaux et al. 2013b) and Pennsylvania; and 6) a realtime large eddy simulation (LES) system that contains 5 nests with the 333- and 111-m resolution grids running LES configuration using LBC provided by the coarser mesoscale grids and improved with eddy-seeding technique developed at Penn State (Gaudet et al. 2012).

Dr. Deng has many years of experience in conducting air-quality modeling research sponsored by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), the Coordinating Research Council (CRC) and the Bay Area Air Quality Management District (BAAQMD). The research findings from the BAAQMD-funded research using the WRF modeling system over Central California has contributed to the optimal realtime WRF model configuration used to support our first-place winning team in “2011 Google/NASA Green Flight Challenge Exposition” (

Dr. Deng also specializes in hazard prediction/AT&D modeling, and coupling between mesoscale meteorological models (i.e., MM5 and WRF) and the AT&D model. He first authored a paper that received the DTRA “Outstanding Scientific Collaboration” award in November 2008 for scientific contributions to the DTRA research and operational communities in the area of coupled mesoscale modeling and AT&D modeling.

Selected Publications and Conference Articles:

Deng, A., B.J. Gaudet, J. Dudhia, and K. Alapaty, 2014: Implementation and Evaluation of a New Shallow Convection Scheme in WRF, 94th American Meteorological Society Annual Meeting, 26th Conference on Weather Analysis and Forecasting/22nd Conference on Numerical Weather Prediction, 2-6 February 2014, Atlanta, GA, 13 pp. (

Deng A., B. Gaudet, J. Dudhia and K. Alapaty, 2013: Implementing a New Shallow Convection Scheme into WRF, 14th Annual WRF Users’ Workshop, Boulder, CO, June 24-28,9pp (Available on the web at:

Rogers, R. E., A. Deng, D. R. Stauffer, B. J. Gaudet, Y. Jia, S. Soong, S. Tanrikulu, 2013: Application of the Weather Research and Forecasting Model for Air Quality Modeling in the San Francisco Bay Area. J. Appl. Meteor., 52, 1953-1973.

Lauvaux T., N. L. Miles, S. J. Richardson, A. Deng, D. Stauufer, K. J. Davis, G. Jacobson, C. Rella, G.-P. Calonder, and P. L. DeCola, 2013a: Urban emissions of CO2 from Davos, Switzerland: the first real-time monitoring system using an atmospheric inversion technique. J. Appl Meteor. and Climatol., 52, 2654-2668.

Langelaan, J. W., A. Chakrabarty, A. Deng, K. Miles, V. Plevnik, J. Tomazic, T. Tomazic, and G. Veble, 2013: The Green Flight Challenge: Aircraft Design and Flight Planning for Extreme Fuel Efficiency. J. of Aircraft, 50, No. 3, 832-846.

Deng A., T. Lauvaux, K. Davis, N. Miles, S. Richardson and D. Stauffer, 2012: A WRF-Chem realtime modeling system for monitoring CO2 emissions. 13th Annual WRF Users’ Workshop, Boulder, CO, June 25-29, 6pp

Deng, A., D.R. Stauffer, B.J. Gaudet, and G.K., Hunter, 2012: A Rapidly Relocatable High-Resolution WRF System for Military-Defense, Aviation and Wind Energy. 13th Annual WRF Users’ Workshop, Boulder, CO, June 25-29, 11pp.

Gaudet, B.J., A. Deng, D.R. Stauffer and N.L. Seaman, 2012: Eddy seeding for improved WRF-LES simulations using realistic lateral boundary conditions, Preprints, 13th WRF Users’ Workshop, Boulder, CO, 25-29 Jun., 7 pp.

Lei, L., D. R. Stauffer, and A. Deng, 2012: A hybrid nudging-ensemble Kalman filter approach to data assimilation in WRF/DART. Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. DOI:10.1002/qj.1939.

Hanna, S.R., B. Reen, E. Hendrick, L. Santos, D. Stauffer, A. Deng, J. McQueen, M. Tsidulko, Z. Janjic, D. Jovic, R. I. Sykes, 2010: Comparison of Observed, MM5 and WRF-NMM Model-Simulated, and HPAC-Assumed Boundary-Layer Meteorological Variables for Three Days During the IHOP Field Experiment. Bound.-Layer Meteor., 134, 285-306. DOI: 10.1007/s10546-009-9446-7.

Deng, A. and D.R. Stauffer, 2006: On improving 4-km mesoscale model simulations. J. Appl. Meteor., 45, 361-381.

Schroeder, A.J., D.R. Stauffer, N.L. Seaman, A. Deng, A.M. Gibbs, G.K. Hunter and G.S. Young, 2006: Evaluation of a high-resolution, rapidly relocatable meteorological nowcasting and prediction system. Mon. Wea. Rev., 134, 1237-1265.

Deng, A., N. L. Seaman, G. K. Hunter and D. R. Stauffer, 2004: Evaluation of interregional transport using the MM5-SCIPUFF system. J. Appl. Meteor., 43, 1864-1886.

Deng, A., N. L. Seaman and J. S. Kain, 2003b: A shallow-convection parameterization for mesoscale models Part II: Verification and sensitivity studies. J. Atmos. Sci., 60, 57-78.

Deng, A., N. L. Seaman and J. S. Kain, 2003a: A shallow-convection parameterization for mesoscale models Part I: Sub-model description and preliminary applications. J. Atmos. Sci., 60, 34-56.