Tropical Meteorology

The study of atmospheric structure and behavior in the areas astride the Equator, roughly between 30° north and south latitude. The weather and climate of the tropics involve phenomena such as trade winds, hurricanes, intertropical convergence zones, jet streams, monsoons, and the El Niño Southern Oscillation.


Dr. Jenni Evans describes how a degree in mathematics led to a career in atmospheric science and explains a bit about her research examining tropical cyclones.

In the News

Hurricane season is never over for Penn State meteorology professor, Jenni Evans


People specializing in this area


Jenni L. Evans

Extratropical transition of tropical cyclones (ET)

Tropical cyclogenesis and subtropical cyclone formation

Factors governing tropical cyclone intensity, TC boundary layer

Gregory S. Jenkins

Weather hazards in the form of mesoscale convective systems, Saharan dust storms and tropical cyclones in the Eastern Atlantic pose a threat to continental, coastal zones and the Island Nation of Cape Verde.  Tropical cyclone formation over the Eastern Atlantic also poses a threat to downstream communities of the Caribbean, the United States and Central America.  Limited real-time weather forecasts and observations do not provide the necessary protection or provide a complete picture of how vulnerable communities in West Africa are being impacted.     

  • Jenkins, G. S., and A. Pratt, 2008: Saharan dust, lightning and tropical cyclones in the eastern tropical Atlantic during NAMMA-06, Geophys. Res. Lett., 35, L12804, doi:10.1029/2008GL033979.
  • Jenkins, G. S., A. S. Pratt, and A. Heymsfield, 2008: Possible linkages between Saharan dust and tropical cyclone rain band invigoration in the eastern Atlantic during NAMMA-06, Geophys. Res. Lett., 35, L08815, doi:10.1029/2008GL034072.
  • Jenkins, G. S., P. Kucera, E. Joseph, J. Fuentes, A. Gaye, J. Gerlach, F. Roux, N. Viltard, M. Papazzoni, A. Protat, D. Bouniol, A.  Reynolds, J. Arnault, D. Badiane, F. Kebe, M. Camara, S. Sall, 2010:  Coastal Observations of Weather Features in Senegal during the AMMA SOP-3 period, J. Geophys. Res., 115, D18108, doi:10.1029/2009JD013022.
  • Chiao S. and G. S. Jenkins, 2010: Numerical Investigations on the Formation of Tropical Storm Debby during NAMMA-06, Wea. Forecasting, 25, 866–884. doi: 10.1175/2010WAF2222313.1
  • Drame, M, Jenkins, G. S., Camara, M., Robjhon, M., 2011. Observations and simulation of a Saharan air layer event with a midtropospheric dust layer at Dakar, Senegal, 6–7 July 2010J. Geophys. Res., 116, doi:10.1029/2011JD016368.
  • Diokhane, A. M, Jenkins, G. S., Manga, N., Drame, M. S., 2015: Linkages between Observed, Modeled Saharan dust loading and Meningitis in Senegal during 2012 and 2013, Int J Biometeorol DOI 10.1007/s00484-015-1051-5

Fuqing Zhang

Tropical cyclones (typhoons and hurricanes), Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO), tropical waves

Post Doctoral Scholars

Holly L. Hamilton

Tropical cyclone boundary layer, supergradient jet, structural changes in tropical cyclones during landfall, West African monsoon, precipitation, TRMM, WRF modeling, African Easterly Waves, African Easterly Jet, effects of topography on convective development

Graduate Students

Jorge Giovanni Jimenez Sanchez

Near-equatorial Low Level Jets